Since 1997


Sylianakis, A.A., Richardson, R., & Baker, K.D. (in press). Timing is everything: Developmental differences in the effect of chronic corticosterone exposure on extinction retention. Behavioral Neuroscience.

Zimmermann, K.S., Richardson, R., & Baker, K.D. (in press) Maturational changes in prefrontal and amygdala circuits in adolescence: implications for understanding fear inhibition during a vulnerable period of development. Brain Science.

Cowan, C.S.M., Stylianakis, A.A., & Richardson, R. (in press). Early-life stress, microbiota, and brain development: Probiotics reverse the effects of maternal separation on neural circuits underpinning fear expression and extinction in infant rats. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience.

Bae, S.E. & Richardson, R. (in press). Brief isolation during infancy enhances the formation of long-term memories. Behavioral Neuroscience.

Elliott, N. D. & Richardson, R. (in press). The effects of early life stress on context fear generalization in adult rats. Behavioral Neuroscience.

Graham, B.M. & Richardson, R. (in press). Fibroblast growth factor-2 enhancement of extinction recall depends on the success of within-session extinction training in rats: a re-analysis. Psychopharmacology.

Cowan, C.S.M. & Richardson, R. (in press). Early-life stress leads to sex-dependent changes in pubertal timing in rats that are reversed by a probiotic formulation. Developmental Psychobiology.

King, G., Baker, K.D., Bisby, M., Chan, D. Cowan, C.S.M., Stylianakis, A.A., Zimmermann, K.S., & Richardson, R. (in press). A Precision Medicine Approach to Pharmacological Adjuncts to Extinction: A Call to Broaden Research. Psychopharmacology.


Bae, S. E. & Richardson, R. (2018). Behavioral tagging in infant rats. Learning & Memory, 25, 580-586.

Graham, B.M., Dong, V., & Richardson, R. (2018). The impact of chronic fluoxetine on conditioned fear expression and hippocampal FGF2 in rats: short- and long-term effects. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 155, 344-350.

Baker, K.D., McNally, G.P., & Richardson, R. (2018). D-Cycloserine facilitates fear extinction in adolescent rats and differentially affects medial and lateral prefrontal cortex activation. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 86, 262-269.

Stylianakis, A.A., Harmon-Jones, S.K., Richardson, R., & Baker, K.D. (2018). Differences in the persistence of spatial memory deficits induced by a chronic stressor in adolescents compared to juveniles. Developmental Psychobiology, 60, 805-813.

King, G., Graham, B.M., & Richardson, R. (2018). Effects of D-Cycloserine on Individual Differences in Relapse of Fear. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 84, 115-124.

Cowan, C.S.M. & Richardson, R. (2018). A brief guide to studying fear in developing rodents: Important considerations and common pitfalls. Current Protocols in Neuroscience, 83, e44.

King, G., Graham, B.M., & Richardson, R. (2018). Individual Differences in Fear Relapse. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 100, 37-43.

Kan, J.M. & Richardson, R. (2018). Ghosts of mother’s past: Previous maternal stress leads to altered maternal behavior following a subsequent pregnancy in rats. Developmental Psychobiology, 60, 278-291.

Bisby, M.A., Baker, K.D., & Richardson, R. (2018). Elucidating the mechanisms of fear extinction in developing animals: A special case of NMDA receptor-independent extinction in adolescent rats. Learning & Memory, 25, 158-164



Graham, B.M., Zagic, D., &, Richardson, R. (2017). Low Endogenous Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 Levels Are Associated With Heightened Conditioned Fear Expression in Rats and Humans. Biological Psychiatry, 82, 601-607.

Newall, C., Watson, T., Grant, K.-A., & Richardson, R. (2017). The relative effectiveness of extinction and counter-conditioning in diminishing Children’s fear. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 95, 42-49.

Baker, K.D., Gray, A.R., & Richardson, R. (2017). The development of perineuronal nets around parvalbumin GABAergic neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala in rats. Behavioral Neuroscience, 131, 289-303.

Baker, K.D. & Richardson, R. (2017). Pharmacological evidence that a failure to recruit NMDA receptors contributes to impaired fear extinction retention in adolescent rats. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 143, 18-26.

King, G., Scott, E., Graham, B., & Richardson, R. (2017). Individual differences in fear extinction and anxiety-like behavior. Learning & Memory, 24, 182-190.




Walters, E. Richardson, R., & Graham, B.M. (2016). Individual differences in conditioned fear expression are associated with enduring differences in endogenous Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 and hippocampal-mediated memory performance. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 134, 248-255.

Kan, J.M., Callaghan, B.L., & Richardson, R. (2016). A mother’s past can predict her offspring’s future: Previous maternal separation leads to the early emergence of adult-like fear behavior in subsequent male infant rat offspring. Behavioral Neuroscience, 130, 511-520.

Baker, K.D., Bisby, M.A., & Richardson, R. (2016). Impaired Fear Extinction in Adolescent Rodents: Behavioural and Neural Analyses. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 70, 59-73

Callaghan, B.L.*, Cowan, C.S.M.*, & Richardson, R.   (2016). Treating generational stress: Effect of paternal stress on offspring memory and extinction development is rescued by probiotic treatment Psychological Science, 27, 1171-1180 (*= equal first authors).

Cowan, C.S.M., Callaghan, B.L., & Richardson, R. (2016). The Effects of a Probiotic Formulation (Lactobacillus rhamnosus and L. helveticus) on Developmental Trajectories of Emotional Learning in Stressed Infant Rats. Translational Psychiatry, e823.

Cowan, C., Callaghan, B.L., Kan, J., & Richardson, R. (2016). The lasting impact of early-life adversity on individuals and their descendants: Potential mechanisms and hope for intervention. Genes, Brain, and Behavior, 15, 155-168.

Richardson, R., Cowan, C. S.M., Callaghan, B.L., & Kan, J.M. (2016). Effects of Early-Life Stress on Fear Memory in the Developing Rat. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 7, 15-20.

Graham, B.M. & Richardson, R. (2016). Individual differences in the expression of conditioned fear are associated with endogenous fibroblast growth factor 2. Learning & Memory, 23, 42-45.

Furlong, T.M., Richardson, R., & McNally, G.P. (2016). Habituation and extinction of fear recruit overlapping forebrain structures. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 128, 7-16.



Graham, B.M. & Richardson, R. (2015). Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 as a New Approach to Fighting Fear. JAMA Psychiatry, 72, 959-960.

Baker, K.D. & Richardson, R. (2015). Forming competing fear learning and extinction memories in adolescence makes fear difficult to inhibit. Learning & Memory, 22, 537-543.

Den, M.L., Graham, B.M., Newall, C., & Richardson, R. (2015). Teens that fear screams: A comparison of fear conditioning, extinction, and reinstatement in adolescents and adults. Developmental Psychobiology, 57, 818-832.

Byrne, S.P., Rapee, R.M., Richardson, R., Mahli, G.S., Jones, M., & Hudson, J.L. (2015). D-Cycloserine Enhances Generalization of Fear Extinction in Children. Depression & Anxiety, 32, 408-414.

Chan, D., Baker, K.D., & Richardson, R. (2015). Relearning a context-shock association after forgetting is an NMDAr-independent process. Physiology & Behavior, 148, 29-35.

Bridget L. Callaghan & Rick Richardson (2015). The development of fear and its inhibition: Knowledge gained from preclinical models (PP. 83-94). In “Primer on Anxiety Disorders”, D. Pine, K. Ressler, B. Rothbaum, & A. Muskin (Eds).  Oxford University Press.



Den, M.L., Altmann, S.R., & Richardson, R. (2014). A comparison of the short- and long-term effects of corticosterone exposure on extinction in adolescence versus adulthood. Behavioral Neuroscience, 128, 722-735.

Callaghan, B.L. & Richardson, R. (2014). Early Emergence of Adult-Like Fear Renewal in the Developing Rat After Chronic Corticosterone Treatment of the Dam or the Pups. Behavioral Neuroscience, 128, 594-602.

Graham, B.M., Callaghan, B.L., & Richardson, R. (2014). Bridging the gap: lessons we have learnt from the merging of psychology and psychiatry for the optimisation of treatments for emotional disorders. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 62, 3-16.

Li, S., Callaghan, B.L., & Richardson, R. (2014). Infantile amnesia: Forgotten but not gone. Learning & Memory, 21,135-139.

Baker, K.D., Den, M.L., Graham, B.M., & Richardson, R. (2014). A window of vulnerability: Impaired fear extinction in adolescence. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 113, 90-100.

Callaghan, B.L., Li, S., & Richardson, R. (2014). The elusive engram: What can infantile amnesia tell us about memory? Trends in Neurosciences, 37, 47-53.



Callaghan, B.L., Graham, B.M, Li, S., & Richardson, R. (2013). From resilience to vulnerability: Mechanistic insights into the effects of stress on transitions in critical period plasticity.  Frontiers in Molecular Psychiatry, 4, article number 90..

Cowan, C.S.M., Callaghan, B.L., & Richardson, R. (2013).Acute Early-Life Stress Results in Premature Emergence of Adult-Like Fear Retention and Extinction Relapse in Infant Rats. Behavioral Neuroscience, 127, 703-711..

Baker, K.D., McNally, G.P., & Richardson, R. (2013). Memory retrieval before or after extinction reduces recovery of fear in adolescent rats. Learning & Memory, 20, 467-473.

Sethi, N., Moulds, M.L. & Richardson, R. (2013). The Role of Focus of Attention and Reappraisal in Prolonging the Negative Effects of Ostracism. Group Dynamics, Theory, Research, and Practice, 17, 110-123.

Callaghan, B.L. & Richardson, R. (2013). Early experiences and the development of emotional learning systems in rats.Biology of Mood and Anxiety Disorders, 3, 8.

 Den, M.L. & Richardson, R. (2013). Enhanced sensitivity to learning fearful associations during adolescence.Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 104, 92-102.

Hawes, D.J., Zadro, L., Iannuzzelli, R., Godwin, A., Macnevin, G., Dadds, M.R., Griffiths, B., & Richardson, R. (2013). Internalising problems and the effects of peer ostracism on children’s primary needs. International Journal of Developmental Sciences, 7, 41-45.

  Cole, S., Richardson, R., & McNally, G. (2013). Ventral hippocampal kappa opioid receptors mediate the renewal of fear following extinction in the rat. PLoS ONE, 8, art no. e58701.

Li, S. & Richardson, R. (2013). Traces of memory: Reacquisition of fear following forgetting is NMDAr-independent. Learning & Memory, 20, 174-182.

Callaghan, B.L., Li, S., Kim, J.H., & Richardson, R. (2013). Preclinical analysis of developmental transitions in the extinction of learned fear: From infancy through adolescence to adulthood.  In D. Hermans, B. Rime, & B. Mesquita (Eds), Changing Emotions, pp. 81-88. Psychology Press.

Tang, H.Y.Y.. & Richardson, R. (2013). Reversing the negative psychological sequalae of exclusion: Inclusion is ameliorative but not protective against the aversive consequences of exclusion. Emotion, 13, 139-150.



Mason, E.C. & Richardson, R. (2012). Treating disgust in anxiety disorders. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 19, 180-194.

Baker, K.D., McNally, G.P., & Richardson, R. (2012). D-Cycloserine does not facilitate fear extinction by reducing conditioned stimulus processing or promoting conditioned inhibition to contextual cues. Learning & Memory, 19, 461-469.

Li, S., Kim, J.H., & Richardson, R. (2012). Updating memories: Changing the involvement of the prelimbic cortex in the expression of an infant fear memory. Neuroscience, 222, 316-325.

Callaghan, B.L., & Richardson, R. (2012). The effect of adverse rearing environments on persistent memories in young rats: Removing the brakes on infant fear memory. Translational Psychiatry, 2, art. no e138.

Storsve, A.B., McNally, G.P., & Richardson, R. (2012). Renewal and reinstatement of the conditioned but not the unconditioned response following habituation of the unconditioned stimulus. Behavioural Processes, 90, 58-65.

Callaghan, B.L. & Richardson, R. (2012). Early-life stress affects extinction during critical periods of development: An analysis of the effects of maternal separation on extinction in adolescent rats. Stress, 15, 671-679.

Li, S., Kim, J.H., & Richardson, R. (2012). Differential involvement of the medial prefrontal cortex in the expression of learned fear across development. Behavioral Neuroscience, 126, 217-225.

Hawes, D.J., Zadro, L., Fink, E., Richardson, R., O’Moore, K., Griffiths, B., Dadds, M.R., & Wiliams, K. (2012). The effects of peer ostracism on children’s cognitive processes. The European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9, 599-613.

Kim, J.H., Li, S., Hamlin, A.S., McNally, G.P., & Richardson, R. (2012). Phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase in the medial prefrontal cortex and the amygdala following memory retrieval or forgetting in developing rats. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 97, 59-68.



Graham, B.M. & Richardson, R. (2011). Intra-amygdala infusion of Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 enhances extinction and reduces renewal and reinstatement in adult rats. Journal of Neuroscience, 31, 14151-14157.

Graham, B.M. & Richardson, R. (2011). Memory of Fearful Events: The role of fibroblast growth factor-2 in fear acquisition and extinction. Neuroscience, 189, 156-169.

Graham, B.M., Langton, J., & Richardson, R. (2011). Pharmacological Enhancement of Fear Reduction: Preclinical models. British Journal of Pharmacology, 164, 1230-1247.

Graham, B.M & Richardson, R. (2011). Fibroblast growth factor-2 alters the nature of extinction. Learning & Memory,18, 80-84.

Callaghan, B.L. & Richardson, R. (2011). Maternal separation results in early emergence of adult-like fear and extinction learning in infant rats. Behavioral Neuroscience, 125, 20-28.

Cole, S., Richardson, R., & McNally, G. (2011). Kappa opioid receptors mediate where fear is expressed following extinction training. Learning & Memory, 18, 88-95.

Pharo H, Gross J, Richardson R, & Hayne H. (2011). Age-Related Changes in the Effect of Ostracism. Social Influence, 6, 22-38.

Kim. J.H., Li, S., & Richardson, R. (2011). Immunohistochemical analysis of long-term extinction of conditioned fear in adolescent rats. Cerebral Cortex, 21, 530-538.



Quirk, G.J., Paré, D., Richardson, R., Herry, C., Monfils, M.H., Schiller, D., & Vicentic, A. (2010). Erasing fear memories with extinction training. Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 14993-14997.

McCallum, J., Kim, J.H., & Richardson, R. (2010). Impaired extinction retention in adolescent rats: Effects of D-cycloserine. Neuropsychopharmacology, 35, 2134-2142.

Langton, J.M. & Richardson, R. (2010). The effect of D-cycloserine on immediate vs. delayed extinction of learned fear. Learning & Memory, 17, 547-551.

Graham, B.M. & Richardson, R. (2010). Early-life exposure to Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 facilitates context-dependent long-term memory in developing rats. Behavioral Neuroscience, 124, 337-345.

Kim, J.H., & Richardson, R. (2010). Extinction in preweanling rats does not involve NMDA receptors. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 94, 176-182.

Graham, B.M. & Richardson, R. (2010). Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Enhances Extinction and Reduces Renewal of Conditioned Fear. Neuropsychopharmacology, 35, 1348-1355.

Langton, J.M. & Richardson, R. (2010). The temporal specificity of the switch from NMDAr-dependent extinction to NMDAr-independent re-extinction. Behavioural Brain Research, 208, 646-649.

Storsve, A.B., McNally, G., & Richardson, R. (2010). US habituation, like CS extinction, produces a decrement in conditioned fear responding that is NMDA dependent and subject to renewal and reinstatement. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 93, 463-471.

Kim, J.H. & Richardson, R. (2010). New Findings on Extinction of Conditioned Fear Early in Development: Theoretical and Clinical Implications. Biological Psychiatry, 67, 297-303.

Richardson, R. & Hunt, P.S. (2010). The ontogeny of fear conditioning. In M.S. Blumberg, J.H. Freeman, & S.R. Robinson (Eds.). Handbook of Developmental and Comparative Neuroscience: Epigenesis, Evolution, and Behavior, pp. 527-545. Oxford University Press.

Mason, E.C. & Richardson, R. (2010). Looking beyond fear: The extinction of other emotions implicated in anxiety disorders. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24, 63-70.



Langton, J.M. & Richardson, R. (2009). The Role of Context in the Re-Extinction of Learned Fear. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 92, 496-503.

Kim, J.H., Hamlin, A.S., & Richardson, R. (2009). Fear extinction across development: the involvement of the medial prefrontal cortex as assessed by temporary inactivation and immunohistochemistry. Journal of Neuroscience, 29, 10802-10808.

Storsve, A.B. & Richardson, R. (2009). A developmental dissociation in compound summation following extinction.Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 92, 80-88.

Graham, B.M. & Richardson, R. (2009). Acute systemic fibroblast growth factor-2 enhances long-term extinction of fear and reduces reinstatement in rats.Neuropsychopharmacology, 34, 1875-1882.

Kim, J.H. & Richardson, R. (2009). The effect of the µ-opioid receptor antagonist naloxone on extinction of conditioned fear in the developing rat. Learning & Memory, 16, 161-166.

Kim, J.H. & Richardson, R. (2009). Expression of renewal is dependent on the extinction-test interval rather than the acquisition-extinction interval. Behavioral Neuroscience, 123, 641-649.

Graham, B.M. & Richardson, R. (2009). Acute systemic fibroblast growth factor-2 enhances long term memory in developing rats. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 91, 424-430.

Lau, G., Moulds, M.L. & Richardson, R. (2009). Ostracism: How much it hurts depends on how you remember it. Emotion, 9, 430-434.



Langton, J.M. & Richardson, R. (2008). D-cycloserine facilitates extinction the first time but not the second time: An examination of the role of NMDA across the course of repeated extinction sessions. Neuropsychopharmacology, 33, 3096-3102.

McNally, G.P., Augustyn, K., & Richardson, R. (2008). GABAA receptors determine the temporal dynamics of memory retention. Learning & Memory, 15, 106-111.

Kim, J.H. & Richardson R. (2008). The effect of temporary amygdala inactivation on extinction and re-extinction of fear in the developing rat: Unlearning as a potential mechanism for extinction early in development. Journal of Neuroscience, 28, 1282-1290.

Guastella, A.J., Richardson, R., Lovibond, P.F., Rapee, R.M., Gaston, J.E., Mitchell, P., & Dadds, M.R. (2008). A Randomised Controlled Trial of D-Cycloserine Enhancement of Exposure Therapy for Social Phobia. Biological Psychiatry, 63, 544-549.



Werner-Seidler, A. & Richardson, R. (2007). Effects of D-Cycloserine on Extinction: Consequences of Prior Exposure to Imipramine. Biological Psychiatry, 62, 1195-1197.

Kim, J.H. & Richardson, R. (2007). Immediate post-reminder injection of the gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) agonist midazolam attenuates reactivation of forgotten fear in the infant rat. Behavioral Neuroscience, 121, 1328-1332.

Tang, H.H.Y., McNally, G.P., & Richardson, R. (2007). The effects of FG7142 on two types of forgetting in 18-day-old rats. Behavioral Neuroscience, 121, 1421-1425.

Langton, J.M., Kim. J.H., Nicholas, J. & Richardson, R. (2007). The effect of the NMDA antagonist MK-801 on the acquisition and extinction of learned fear in the developing rat. Learning & Memory, 14, 665-668.

Yap, C.S.L. & Richardson, (2007). The Ontogeny of Fear-Potentiated Startle: Effects of Earlier-acquired Fear Memories. Behavioral Neuroscience, 121, 1053-1062.

Hunt, P.S., Fanselow, M.S., Richardson, R., Mauk, M.D., Freeman, J.H., & Stanton, M.E. (2007). Synapses, Circuits and the Ontogeny of Learning. Developmental Psychobiology, 49, 649-663.

Richardson, R. & Hayne H. (2007). You Can’t Take It With You: The Translation of Memory across Development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 223-227.

Yap, C.S.L. & Richardson, R. (2007). Extinction in the Developing Rat: An Examination of Renewal Effects. Developmental Psychobiology, 49, 565-575.

Kim, J.H. & Richardson, R. (2007). A Developmental Dissociation in Reinstatement of an Extinguished Fear Response in Rats. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 8848-57.

Weber, M., Hart, J., & Richardson, R. (2007). Effects of D-Cycloserine on Extinction of Learned Fear to an Olfactory Cue. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 87, 476-482.

Kim, J.H. & Richardson, R. (2007). A Developmental Dissociation of Context and GABA effects on Extinguished Fear in Rats. Behavioral Neuroscience, 121, 131-139.

Guastella, A.J., Lovibond, P.F., Dadds, M.R., Mitchell, P., & Richardson R. (2007). A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effect of D-cycloserine on Extinction and Fear Conditioning in Humans. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 663-672.

Hunt, P.S. & Richardson, R. (2007). Pharmacological dissociation of trace and long-delay fear conditioning in young rats. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 87, 86-92.

Guastella,A.J., Dadds, M.R., Lovibond, P.F., Mitchell, P., & Richardson, R. (2007). A randomized controlled trial of the effect of D-cycloserine on exposure therapy for spider fear. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 41, 466-471.



Davis, M., Ressler, K., Rothbaum, B.O., & Richardson, R. (2006). Effects of D-cycloserine: Translation from preclinical to clinical work. Biological Psychiatry, 60, 369-375.

Weber, M., McNally, G., & Richardson, R. (2006). Opioid receptors regulate retrieval of infant fear memories: Effects of naloxone on infantile amnesia. Behavioral Neuroscience 120, 702-709.

Schwienbacher, I., Schnitzler, H-U., Westbrook, R.F., Richardson, R., & Fendt, M. (2006). Carbachol injections into the nucleus accumbens disrupts acquisition and expression of fear-potentiated startle and freezing in rats. Neuroscience, 140, 769-778.

Zadro, L., Boland, C., & Richardson, R. (2006). How long does it last? The persistence of the effects of ostracism in the socially anxious. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42, 692-697.

Saunders, J.C., McDonald, S., & Richardson R. (2006). Loss of emotional experience after TBI: Findings with the startle probe procedure. Neuropsychology, 20, 222-231.

Kim, J.H., McNally, G., & Richardson, R. (2006). Recovery of Fear Memories in Rats: Role of GABA in Infantile Amnesia. Behavioral Neuroscience, 120, 40-48.



Yap, C.S., Stapinski, L., & Richardson, R. (2005). Behavioral Expression of Learned Fear: Updating of Early Memories. Behavioral Neuroscience, 119, 1467-1476.

Yap, C.S. & Richardson, R. (2005). Latent inhibition in the developing rat: An examination of context-specific effects. Developmental Psychobiology, 47, 55-65.

Parnas, A.S., Weber, M., & Richardson, R. (2005). Effects of multiple exposures to D-Cycloserine on extinction of conditioned fear in rats. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 83, 224-231.

Zadro, L., Williams, K.D., & Richardson, R. (2005). Riding the “O” Train: Comparing the Effects of Ostracism and Verbal Dispute on Targets and Sources. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 8, 125-143.

Ledgerwood, L., Richardson, R., & Cranney, J. (2005). D-Cycloserine facilitates extinction of learned fear: Effects on reacquisition and generalized extinction. Biological Psychiatry, 57, 841-847.



Schwienbacher, I., Fendt, M., Richardson, R., & Schnitzler, H-U. (2004). Temporary inactivation of the nucleus accumbens disrupts acquisition and expression of fear-potentiated startle in rats. Brain Research, 1027, 87-93.

Richardson, R., Ledgerwood, L., & Cranney, J. (2004). Facilitation of Fear Extinction by D-Cycloserine: Theoretical and Clinical Implications. Learning & Memory, 11, 510-516.

Weber, M. & Richardson, R. (2004). Pretraining inactivation of the caudal pontine reticular nucleus impairs the acquisition of conditioned fear potentiated startle to an odor but not a light. Behavioral Neuroscience, 118, 965-974.

Ledgerwood, L., Richardson, R., & Cranney, J. (2004). d-Cycloserine and the Facilitation of Extinction of Conditioned Fear: Consequences for Reinstatement. Behavioral Neuroscience, 118, 505-513.

Zadro, L., Williams, K., & Richardson, R. (2004). How low can you go? Ostracism by a computer is sufficient to lower mood and self-reported levels of belonging, control, self-esteem, and meaningful existence. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40, 560-567.

Schulz, B., Fendt, M., Richardson, R., & Schnitzler, H.U. (2004). Temporary inactivation of the perirhinal cortex by muscimol injections block acquisition and expression of fear-potentiated startle. European Journal of Neuroscience, 19, 713-720.



Weber, M., Watts, N., & Richardson, R. (2003). High illumination levels potentiate the acoustic startle response in preweanling rats. Behavioral Neuroscience, 117, 1458-1462.

Richardson, R. & McNally, G. (2003). Effects of an odor paired with illness on startle, freezing, and analgesia in rats. Physiology & Behavior, 78, 213-219.

Richardson, R., Fan, M., & Parnas, S. (2003). Latent Inhibition of Conditioned Odor Potentiation of Startle: A Developmental Analysis. Developmental Psychobiology, 42, 261-268.

Ledgerwood, L., Richardson, R., & Cranney, J. (2003). Effects of D-Cycloserine on Extinction of Conditioned Freezing. Behavioral Neuroscience, 117, 341-349.



Richardson, R. & Fan, M. (2002). Behavioral Expression of Conditioned Fear in Rats is Appropriate to their Age at Training, not their Age at Testing. Animal Learning & Behavior, 30, 394-404.

Richardson, R., Tronson, N., Parnas, S., & Bailey, G.K. (2002). Extinction of Conditioned Odor Potentiation of Startle, Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 78, 426-440.

Westbrook, R.F., Iordanova, M., McNally, G., Richardson, R., & Harris, J.A. (2002). Reinstatement of Fear to an Extinguished Conditioned Stimulus: Two Roles for Context. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 28, 97-110.



Weber, M. & Richardson, R. (2001). Centrally administered corticotropin-releasing factor and peripheral injections of strychnine hydrochloride potentiate the acoustic startle response in preweanling rats. Behavioral Neuroscience, 115, 1273-1282.



Weber, M., Paxinos, G., & Richardson, R. (2000). Conditioned changes in ultrasonic vocalizations to an aversive olfactory stimulus are lateralized in 6-day-old rats. Developmental Psychobiology, 37, 121-128.

Richardson, R. Paxinos, G., & Lee, J. (2000). The Ontogeny of Conditioned Odor Potentiation of Startle. Behavioral Neuroscience, 114, 1167-1173.

Vishney, A. & Richardson, R. (2000). Diazepam Attenuates Conditioned Odor-Potentiation of Startle. Psychobiology, 36, 282-291.

Woodcock, E. & Richardson, R. (2000). Effects of Multisensory Stimulation on Contextual Conditioning in the Developing Rat. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 74, 89-104.

Richardson, R. & Vishney, A. (2000). Shock Sensitization of Startle in the Developing Rat. Developmental Psychobiology, 36, 282-291.

Richardson, R. (2000). Shock Sensitization of Startle: Learned or Unlearned Fear? Behavioral Brain Research, 110, 109-117.

Woodcock, E. & Richardson, R. (2000). Effects of Environmental Enrichment on Rate of Contextual Processing and Discriminative Ability in Adult Rats. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 73, 1-10.



Riccio, D., Richardson, R., & Ebner, D.L. (1999). The Contextual Change Paradox is Still Unresolved: Comment on Bouton, Nelson, and Rosas. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 187-189.

Zavitsanou, K., Cranney, J.C., & Richardson, R. (1999). Dopamine Antagonists in the Orbital Prefrontal Cortex Reduce Prepulse Inhibition of the Acoustic Startle Response in the Rat. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior, 62, 55-61.

Richardson, R., Duffield, T.Q., Bailey, G.K. & Westbrook, R.F. (1999). Reinstatement of fear to an extinguished conditioned context. Animal Learning & Behavior, 399-415.

Richardson, R., Vishney, A., & Lee, J. (1999). Conditioned Odor-Potentiation of Startle in Rats. Behavioral Neuroscience, 113, 787-794.



Richardson, R. & Elsayed, H. (1998). Shock-Sensitization of Startle: The Role of Contextual Conditioning. Behavioral Neuroscience, 112, 1136-1141.

Richardson, R. & DeFina, M. (1998). Effects of Home-Nest Odors on the Startle Response in Preweanling Rats. Physiology & Behavior, 64, 621-624.



Hunt, P.S., Richardson, R., Hess, M., & Campbell, B.A. (1997). Emergence of conditioned cardiac responses to an olfactory CS paired with an acoustic startle US during development: Form and autonomic origins. Developmental Psychobiology, 30, 151-163.